Leisure Jogging Associated With Lowest Mortality Risk!

 

The optimal frequency of jogging in terms of mortality risk was shown to be two to three times a week and at a leisurely pace, according to a study published Feb. 2 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC). Jogging three times or more a week was not shown to be statistically different from remaining sedentary.

 

Using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, researchers observed the pace, quality and frequency of jogging in 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy non-joggers to evaluate the association between jogging and long-term, all-cause mortality. Participants were excluded for a history of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cancer. Participants rated their physical activity on a graded scale of one to four: one, almost entirely sedentary; two: light physical activity 2-4 hours per week; three: vigorous activity for 2-4 hours per week, or light physical activity for more than four hours per week; four: high vigorous physical activity for more than four hours. Joggers were further divided into three subgroups based on dose of jogging: slow (5 mph, 7 mph, >4 hours per week, >3 times per week).

Follow-up of all participants occurred from their first examination in 2001 until 2013, or death (a 12 year followup!).

The results of the study showed that jogging from 1 to 2.4 hours per week was associated with the lowest mortality, while greater quantities of jogging were not significantly different from remaining sedentary in terms of mortality risk. Further, researchers found a U-shaped association between jogging and mortality. Researchers reported 28 deaths among joggers and 128 among sedentary non-joggers, though no causes were recorded.

The authors conclude that “the U-shaped association suggests the existence of an upper limit for exercise dosing that is optimal for health benefits…If the goal is to decrease the risk of death and improve life expectancy, going for a leisurely job a few times per week at a moderate pace is a good strategy.”

In an accompanying editorial comment, Duck-chul Lee, PhD, Department of Kinesiology, College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, adds that the study “adds to the current body of evidence on the dose-response relationship between running and mortality. However, further exploration is clearly warranted regarding whether there is an optimal amount of running for mortality benefits, especially for cardiovascular and CHD mortality. In addition, because self-reported doses of running may induce measurement error and bias, it would be preferable to use an objective assessment of doses of running in future studies.”

Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, MACC, editor-in-chief of JACC, remarks that “this study attempts to answer the question about whether increased intensity among better trained individuals results in improved outcomes. What is most interesting in this paper is the U-shaped curve of the findings, indicating that moderate exercise, with regard to total duration, frequency and intensity, results in the best benefit. Thus, it was fascinating to see that both the sedentary population and the aggressive exercisers (with regard to frequency, duration and speed) have higher mortality rates than the moderate exercisers.”

 

So, slow down a little if you are jogging too fast and too much! Soak in the surrounding and enjoy the jog at a leisurely pace!

 

 

via Study Shows Leisure Jogging Associated With Lowest Mortality Risk | ACC News Story – American College of Cardiology.

Excess salt blamed for 2.3 million deaths from CVD worldwide in 2010

Ever wondered what makes a food taste good? Most of the time it is the salt and/or oil/fat which make the food tasty. However we have some revealing facts about salt and its after-effects!

Researchers estimate that in 2010, adults in most parts of the world consumed about twice as much salt as recommended, and millions of Cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths worldwide were linked to excess sodium [1,2].

These findings were presented at EPI|NPAM 2013, the Epidemiology and Prevention/Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism 2013 Scientific Sessions.

In the first study, Dr Saman Fahimi (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA) and colleagues reported that in 2010, adults in 187 countries consumed, on average, 3950 mg sodium a day—roughly twice the maximum intake recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2000 mg/day) or the AHA (1500 mg/day).

In the second study, Dr Dariush Mozaffarian (Harvard School of Public Health) and colleagues reported that in the same year, they estimate that excess dietary salt led to 2.3 million deaths from CVD worldwide and about one in 10 deaths from CVD in the US.

The average salt consumption in the US was 3600 mg/day, and the US ranked 19th of the 30 largest countries, in estimated numbers of CVD deaths that were thought to be related to excess salt consumption.

Sodium intake in only six countries of 187 countries met the WHO guidelines,” Fahimi said.

When counseling patients about the impact of dietary salt on heart health, physicians need to be aware that salty snacks such as peanuts and chips are not the only culprits, Mozaffarian said. “In the US and in most highly developed countries, 90% of the salt in the diet comes from packaged foods,” where salt is used as a preservative; perhaps surprisingly, bread is the number-one source of salt, and cheese is a major source, he noted.

High-salt diet, a universal finding!

Excess sodium intake was universal—seen in men and women of all ages, living in low- to high-income countries. In 2010, the average daily sodium intake exceeded 2000 mg in 181 countries and exceeded 3000 mg in 119 countries.

Sodium intake varied widely between different parts of the world. Kazakhstan had the highest sodium intake (6.0 g/day), followed by Mauritius (5.6 g/day), and Uzbekistan (5.5 g/day), whereas Kenya (1.5 g/day), Malawi (1.5 g/day), and Rwanda (1.6 g/day) had the lowest daily intake of sodium.

Model linked CVD deaths to sodium intake:

Globally, of the CVD deaths attributed to high dietary sodium, 42.1% were from CHD, 41.0% were from stroke, and 16.9% were from other types of CVD.

Deaths from CVD that were related to dietary salt did not occur only in older men in wealthier countries:

Four in five deaths were in low- and middle-income countries.

40% of the deaths were in women,

One in three deaths occurred in people younger than 69.

 

 

So, guys take that salt with a pinch of salt! Try herbs instead!

via Excess salt blamed for 2.3 million deaths from CVD worldwide in 2010 | theheart.org.