The optimal frequency of jogging in terms of mortality risk was shown to be two to three times a week and at a leisurely pace, according to a study published Feb. 2 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC). Jogging three times or more a week was not shown to be statistically different from remaining sedentary.
Using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, researchers observed the pace, quality and frequency of jogging in 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy non-joggers to evaluate the association between jogging and long-term, all-cause mortality. Participants were excluded for a history of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cancer. Participants rated their physical activity on a graded scale of one to four: one, almost entirely sedentary; two: light physical activity 2-4 hours per week; three: vigorous activity for 2-4 hours per week, or light physical activity for more than four hours per week; four: high vigorous physical activity for more than four hours. Joggers were further divided into three subgroups based on dose of jogging: slow (5 mph, 7 mph, >4 hours per week, >3 times per week).
Follow-up of all participants occurred from their first examination in 2001 until 2013, or death (a 12 year followup!).
The results of the study showed that jogging from 1 to 2.4 hours per week was associated with the lowest mortality, while greater quantities of jogging were not significantly different from remaining sedentary in terms of mortality risk. Further, researchers found a U-shaped association between jogging and mortality. Researchers reported 28 deaths among joggers and 128 among sedentary non-joggers, though no causes were recorded.
The authors conclude that “the U-shaped association suggests the existence of an upper limit for exercise dosing that is optimal for health benefits…If the goal is to decrease the risk of death and improve life expectancy, going for a leisurely job a few times per week at a moderate pace is a good strategy.”
In an accompanying editorial comment, Duck-chul Lee, PhD, Department of Kinesiology, College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, adds that the study “adds to the current body of evidence on the dose-response relationship between running and mortality. However, further exploration is clearly warranted regarding whether there is an optimal amount of running for mortality benefits, especially for cardiovascular and CHD mortality. In addition, because self-reported doses of running may induce measurement error and bias, it would be preferable to use an objective assessment of doses of running in future studies.”
Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, MACC, editor-in-chief of JACC, remarks that “this study attempts to answer the question about whether increased intensity among better trained individuals results in improved outcomes. What is most interesting in this paper is the U-shaped curve of the findings, indicating that moderate exercise, with regard to total duration, frequency and intensity, results in the best benefit. Thus, it was fascinating to see that both the sedentary population and the aggressive exercisers (with regard to frequency, duration and speed) have higher mortality rates than the moderate exercisers.”
So, slow down a little if you are jogging too fast and too much! Soak in the surrounding and enjoy the jog at a leisurely pace!
“Death in old age is, of course, inevitable, but death in middle age is not”, so rightly said by Dr. Kerr.
Professor Peter Elwood, who is at the School of Public Health at the University of Wales in Cardiff, has done a remarkable piece of work observing a large cohort of Welsh men for over 30 years. By carefully monitoring patterns of behavior — smoking, alcohol consumption, and so on — he has mapped these behaviors onto the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, and, of course, cancer. He showed that if we live well, if we choose to live well, then we can have remarkable reductions in the risk of developing all those types of diseases.
The 5 Longevity “Virtues”
There are 5 basic types of good behavior: regular exercise, not smoking, alcohol consumption within guidelines, maintaining a low BMI (body mass index), and eating a predominantly plant-based diet.
Thus, if one practices 4 or 5 of those “virtues,” compared with men who practice none, the reduction in the risk for cardiovascular disease is around 67%; the reduction in the incidence of diabetes is 73%; the reduction in developing cancer is 20%-25%; remarkably, the reduction in dementia is 65%; and the reduction in all-cause mortality is 32%. Most of the reduction in cancer risk was related to smoking, and frankly the other forms of behavior in this cohort did not affect the development of cancer very remarkably.
Very similar outcomes have been found in large studies in the United States and elsewhere in Western Europe.
Many deaths in middle age are preventable. Let us live well. and Live Long!
The association between a positive emotional state of mind and lower mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease is mediated by exercise, according to the results of a new study.
Patients with higher levels of positive affect, which reflects a pleasurable response to the environment and typically includes feelings of happiness, joy, excitement, contentment and enthusiasm, had a 42% lower risk of all-cause mortality at five years and were 50% more likely to participate in an exercise program than those with lower levels of positive affect.
Writing in the September 10, 2013 online issue of Circulation, the researchers sought to determine if positive affect predicted time to first cardiac-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality, and whether exercise mediated this relationship.
Ischemic heart disease patients with higher levels of positive affect had a significant 42% lower risk of all-cause mortality at five years. In addition, these happier patients were also 48% more likely to exercise. In a risk model that adjusted for positive affect, patients who exercised were less likely to die during the five-year follow-up. The mortality benefit among those with positive affect is mediated by exercise.
So be happy and exercise for a healthy heart!
New study throws light on reducing Cardiovascular risk in patients with Diabetes!
It is a general feeling among diabetic patients and their physicians that controlling their sugar levels and their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in the normal range would suffice to reduce the cardiovascular risk.
However, a recent study including 26,636 diabetic patients with longitudinal blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and HbA1c measurements followed for a mean of 5.6 years proves that it would not suffice!
These patients were analysed and followed up over a period of 5.6 years and their first cardiovascular hospitalization rates were studied. The analysis got published online January 24, 2013 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.
It was found that diabetic patients who kept their blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin levels all under control showed a 2.5 fold drop in the risk of cardiovascular-disease hospitalization over 6 years, compared with those who controlled none of the 3 risk factors.
Most of the observed benefit came from control of blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol as per guidelines.
Patients who had none of the three markers under control had the highest hospitalization rates of 18.2 per 1000 person-years.
And, patients with all three parameters controlled had the lowest rates, at 6.1 per 1000 person-years.
So, Diabetics Beware! Pay equal attention to your blood pressure and LDL-Cholesterol levels to reduce your cardiac risk!