Cutting sodium content, taxing salt could cut CVD deaths.

 

A combined approach of reducing salt content by just 10% in processed foods and taxing foods with high salt content could reduce cardiovascular deaths in developing countries by as much as 3%, a new modeling study suggests. This two-pronged approach would also be cheap, Dr Thomas Gaziano (Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, MA) who presented the data at the World Congress of Cardiology 2012.

 

Hypertension is the number-one risk factor for death worldwide, accounting for 12.8% of deaths every year. It also accounts for 10% of all healthcare spending worldwide—$450 billion per year in the US alone.

Gaziano and colleagues modeled the impact of applying the approach to sodium reduction used in the UK to 19 developing countries, making up half the world’s population. That approach includes voluntary collaboration on the part of food manufacturers to reduce sodium content by 10% and adding a 40% tax to salty foods—similar to the taxes applied to tobacco in many countries.

According to Gaziano, both strategies proved cost saving in all countries and would lead to a drop of roughly 3% in the rate of cardiovascular deaths. Stroke rates would drop even more sharply by as much as 5%.

Collaboration with industry to reduce sodium content in foods was the more effective strategy of the two and produced the most cost savings, he noted. Both, however, were cheap—in the range of $43 to $49 per capita over the lifetime of the individual.

Sounds great! I hope governments are listening!

via Cutting sodium content, taxing salt could cut CVD deaths | theheart.org.

Four Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Lower Risk of Death.

Adopting a healthy lifestyle, one that includes not smoking, eating right, daily physical activity, and a healthy weight, is associated with a low incidence of calcium in the coronary arteries, as well as a slower progression of coronary artery calcium as measured over a three-year period, according to the results of a new study.

This study was published online June 4, 2013 in the American Journal of Epidemiology.

This is the first study to look at biological progression every step of the way in a single longitudinal fashion.

The study included 6229 US adults aged 44 to 84 years old. All patients were given a lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4, based on whether or not they followed

1. a Mediterranean-style diet,

2. their exercise habits (achieving 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week),

3. body-mass index (BMI), and

4. smoking status.

One point was awarded for each healthy lifestyle behavior. The patients also underwent coronary artery calcium screening at baseline and a follow-up scan was performed 3.1 years later.

 

Overall, just 2% of the participants met all four healthy-lifestyle criteria!

The median annual progression in coronary artery calcium for individuals with a score 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 25 Agatston points/year, 20 points/year, 18 points/year, 18 points/year, and 14 points/year, respectively.

Lower Risk of Death

Clinically, a healthier lifestyle also translated into a significant reduction in all-cause mortality and a trend toward lower coronary heart disease risk over a seven-year follow-up period.

Individuals who adopted all four healthy behaviors had an approximate 80% lower risk of death than those with no healthy behaviors.

 

“The benefits were cumulative, meaning the more healthy behaviors, the better,” commented Ahmed, one of the investigators. “So if you maintained a normal weight and ate healthy but weren’t exercising, this shows you can still have even more benefit from adding exercise to your life.”

Of the behaviors investigated, however, smoking was the most devastating. “In fact, if you exercised, ate healthily, and maintained normal weight, but smoked, you still were worse off than people who did nothing else right but stayed away from cigarettes. This really highlighted how important it is to stay away from smoking. It is probably singlehandedly the best thing you can do for your cardiovascular and overall health.”

You can’t pick your family history or change your age, but you can start exercising today, and you can start changing your diet today. All these interventions are things that cost us very little to nothing and are 100% in our hands. With these we have the ability to control our own wellness and health.

via Four Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Lower Risk of Death.

Mediterranean Diet Slows Atherosclerosis Progression

 

High adherence to a Mediterranean diet appears to slow the progression of carotid plaque (fat deposition in the carotid arteries), a PREDIMED substudy suggests.

Investigators also found attenuation of plaque progression in the Mediterranean diet arm of the study that included supplementation with nuts and no such change in the other intervention arm, which included supplemental extra virgin olive oil.

This study was presented at the European Atherosclerosis Society 2013 Congress .

PREDIMED was a large  trial that randomized 7447 patients at high cardiovascular (CV) risk (but no CV disease) to a control diet (including advice to reduce dietary fat) or Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts).

 

 

After 4.8 years, the risk of major CV events (MI, stroke, death from CV causes) was reduced by 30% in the Mediterranean groups combined, compared with the control diet. The Mediterranean diet group assigned to the extra virgin olive oil supplementation saw a 30% reduction, while those in the nut supplementation group saw a 28% reduction, both compared with the control group.

 

Imaging Insights

A total of 61 patients in the control group, 57 in the MedDiet plus supplementary olive-oil group, and 46 in the MedDiet plus nuts group underwent carotid ultrasound imaging at baseline and after a minimum of two years on their assigned diet. They looked at plaque volume and carotid-artery intima thinkness.

They saw a significant reduction in carotid plaque in the  MedDiet group. There was delayed progression in the olive-oil group, and slight regression in the nuts group.”

Though the patient volume invloved in the trial was less, it suggested that a mediterranean diet rich in nuts could slow down atherosclerosis and also reduce CV disease and mortality.

 

via Mediterranean Diet Slows Atherosclerosis Progression.

Fall in cardiac risk in diabetes with multiple risk-factor control

New study throws light on reducing Cardiovascular risk in patients with Diabetes!

It is a general feeling among diabetic patients and their physicians that controlling their sugar levels and their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels in the normal range would suffice to reduce the cardiovascular risk.

However, a recent study   including 26,636 diabetic patients with longitudinal blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and HbA1c measurements followed for a mean of 5.6 years proves that it would not suffice!

These patients were analysed and followed up over a period of 5.6 years and their first cardiovascular hospitalization rates were studied. The analysis got published online January 24, 2013 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

It was found that diabetic patients who kept their blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin levels all under control showed a 2.5 fold drop in the risk of cardiovascular-disease hospitalization over 6 years, compared with those who controlled none of the 3 risk factors.

Most of the observed benefit came from control of blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol as per guidelines. 

Patients who had none of the three markers under control had the highest hospitalization rates of 18.2  per 1000 person-years. 

And, patients with all three parameters controlled had the lowest rates, at 6.1 per 1000 person-years.

So, Diabetics Beware! Pay equal attention to  your blood pressure and LDL-Cholesterol levels to reduce your cardiac risk!

Take care!

via Kaiser: Fall in CV risk in diabetes with multiple risk-factor control | theheart.org.