The optimal frequency of jogging in terms of mortality risk was shown to be two to three times a week and at a leisurely pace, according to a study published Feb. 2 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC). Jogging three times or more a week was not shown to be statistically different from remaining sedentary.
Using data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, researchers observed the pace, quality and frequency of jogging in 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy non-joggers to evaluate the association between jogging and long-term, all-cause mortality. Participants were excluded for a history of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cancer. Participants rated their physical activity on a graded scale of one to four: one, almost entirely sedentary; two: light physical activity 2-4 hours per week; three: vigorous activity for 2-4 hours per week, or light physical activity for more than four hours per week; four: high vigorous physical activity for more than four hours. Joggers were further divided into three subgroups based on dose of jogging: slow (5 mph, 7 mph, >4 hours per week, >3 times per week).
Follow-up of all participants occurred from their first examination in 2001 until 2013, or death (a 12 year followup!).
The results of the study showed that jogging from 1 to 2.4 hours per week was associated with the lowest mortality, while greater quantities of jogging were not significantly different from remaining sedentary in terms of mortality risk. Further, researchers found a U-shaped association between jogging and mortality. Researchers reported 28 deaths among joggers and 128 among sedentary non-joggers, though no causes were recorded.
The authors conclude that “the U-shaped association suggests the existence of an upper limit for exercise dosing that is optimal for health benefits…If the goal is to decrease the risk of death and improve life expectancy, going for a leisurely job a few times per week at a moderate pace is a good strategy.”
In an accompanying editorial comment, Duck-chul Lee, PhD, Department of Kinesiology, College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, adds that the study “adds to the current body of evidence on the dose-response relationship between running and mortality. However, further exploration is clearly warranted regarding whether there is an optimal amount of running for mortality benefits, especially for cardiovascular and CHD mortality. In addition, because self-reported doses of running may induce measurement error and bias, it would be preferable to use an objective assessment of doses of running in future studies.”
Valentin Fuster, MD, PhD, MACC, editor-in-chief of JACC, remarks that “this study attempts to answer the question about whether increased intensity among better trained individuals results in improved outcomes. What is most interesting in this paper is the U-shaped curve of the findings, indicating that moderate exercise, with regard to total duration, frequency and intensity, results in the best benefit. Thus, it was fascinating to see that both the sedentary population and the aggressive exercisers (with regard to frequency, duration and speed) have higher mortality rates than the moderate exercisers.”
So, slow down a little if you are jogging too fast and too much! Soak in the surrounding and enjoy the jog at a leisurely pace!
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring that doesn’t involve heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, and in this sense might be more accurately termed edible oil.
Cooking oil is typically a liquid at room temperature, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil are solid.
The FDA recommends that 30% or fewer of calories consumed daily should be from fat.
Oils containing higher percentage of saturated fats are associated with higher cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This can be bad for the heart.
Oils containing higher percentage of Unsaturated fats (monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats) are generally healthier.
Mayo Clinic has highlighted oils that are high in saturated fats, including coconut, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Those of lower amounts of saturated fats, and higher levels of unsaturated (preferably monounsaturated) fats like olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, avocado, safflower, corn, sunflower, soy, mustard and cottonseed oils are generally healthier.
The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and World Heart Federation have urged saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. The health body lists olive and canola oils as sources of monounsaturated oils while soybean and sunflower oils are rich with polyunsaturated fat.
Here is the List of Cooking oils arranged in increasing amount of saturated fats!
|Type of oil or fat||Saturated (%)||Monounsaturated (%)||Polyunsaturated (%)|
|Pumpkin seed oil||8||36||57|
|Sunflower oil (high oleic)||9||82||9|
|Sunflower oil (linoleic)||11||20||69|
|Rice bran oil||20||47||33|
|Tea seed oil||22||60||18|
Its better to choose oil which are low in Saturated fats and high in monounsaturated fats as they are found to be healthier. However, the total amount of oil consumed still needs to be less than 30% of your calorie intake!
Olive oil is actually the juice of the olive, and it is the only oil in the market that is extracted from a fresh fruit. Of course, we’ve all read about the benefits of olive oil, and what it can do to our skin and hair.
But do we really know how to use this oil for everyday cooking, more importantly, which grade of oil to use?
Perhaps not, which is why even though many in the world have switched to olive oil, we’re still unsure about its usage.
Time to get educated, then… To begin with, here’s bursting the most famous olive oil myth in India: We should use Extra Virgin (EV) olive oil because it is the best!
Extra virgin olive oil:
It is the highest grade olive oil with perfect aroma and flavour. EV oil is got from the first cold pressing of the olive fruit within 24 hours of harvesting. It is heavy, and its viscosity is higher than other grades of olive oil and therefore, it is mainly use is for preparing cold dishes: dressing salads, pasta, rice and vegetables, meat and fish.
This variety is a combination of refined olive oil and EV olive oil. Refined olive oil is obtained by refining oil that does not possess optimum characteristics. After refining, the oil is blended with EV oilive ol. Olive oil is an intermediate grade oil at the best. Well, not really. At least, not for preparing Indian dishes. EV olive oil may be best in flavour, but its flavour is so strong that it can change the taste of the dish! Also, deep-frying in EV olive oil is not advisable as it is heavy and viscous as compared to other grades of olive oil. Therefore, EV olive oil is suitable for only flavouring, dressings and condiments or for integrating foods – like making cold sauces, crushing ingredients and preparing Carpaccio or marinated dishes. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are primarily refined olive oil, with a small addition of virgin-production to give taste.
So then, what is the best option? Olive pomace oil. It is the cooking grade oil, and is used all over Italy, Spain and the Mediterranean for every type of cooking. Pomace oil is not costly, is light and has neutral with medium aroma and flavour, suitable for pan and deep frying, stir-fries, sautes and stews. It is also suitable for all types of body massage.
Olive pomace oil:
This is the main cooking grade oil variety. It is a light oil with neutral taste and flavour and is the most suitable oil for Indian cuisine as it does not change the flavour or taste of any preparation. This oil is obtained by treating the olive residue paste (after the fruit has been pressed) with solvents to extract oil, refining and then blending this product with EV oil in order to enhance the product and its health benefits, taste and flavour.
And, this oil is ideal for cooking all types and varieties of Indian dishes. It neither changes the taste nor presents any difficulties while cooking. Indian cuisine, whether fried, roasted, ‘bhunoed’ or cooked by any other method, tastes as good with Olive Pomace oil as it does when prepared in sunflower, safflower, corn or any other oil. Also, when frying at between 130 and 190 o C, olive oil forms a crisp, golden crust making the fried food much more appetizing but without affecting its nutritional value, as the oil hardly penetrates the food, leaving it light and digestible. Each portion of this oil used for deep frying may be reused 3-4 times as long as it is filtered carefully after each use through a gauze, muslin or a suitable paper filter.
And this one’s for those who think the oil is really costly: Yes, any grade of olive oil costs more than other edible oils. But look at it this way: It takes only 1/3rd the quantity of other edible oils to cook in olive oil, and since it has a high smoking point, it can be reused 3-4 times. Therefore, the effective cost of olive oil is 1/9th of its actual price!
Some very interesting data revealed by the National Weight Loss Registry
A total of 2886 participants who had lost at least 30 pounds and kept it off for at least one year were enrolled.
Data was collected in 1993-2010 and analysis was conducted in 2012.
It was a 10 year observational study and recently got published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
FINDINGS OF THE REGISTRY!!!
- The “average” woman is 45 years of age and currently weighs 145 lbs, while the “average” man is 49 years of age and currently weighs 190 lbs.
- Registry members have lost an average of 66 lbs and kept it off for 5.5 years.
- These averages, however, hide a lot of diversity:
- Weight losses have ranged from 30 to 300 lbs.
- Duration of successful weight loss has ranged from 1 year to 66 years!
- Some have lost the weight rapidly, while others have lost weight very slowly–over as many as 14 years.
- We have also started to learn about how the weight loss was accomplished: 45% of registry participants lost the weight on their own and the other 55% lost weight with the help of some type of program.
- 98% of Registry participants report that they modified their food intake in some way to lose weight.
- 94% increased their physical activity, with the most frequently reported form of activity being walking.
- There is variety in how NWCR members keep the weight off. Most report continuing to maintain a low calorie, low fat diet and doing high levels of activity.
- 78% eat breakfast every day.
- 75% weigh themselves at least once a week.
- 62% watch less than 10 hours of TV per week.
- 90% exercise, on average, about 1 hour per day.
The majority of weight lost by NWCR members is maintained over 10 years. Long-term weight-loss maintenance is possible and requires sustained behavior change. 80% of persons in the registry are women and 20% are men.